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Tao, Z., S. R. Kawa, J. P. Jacob, D. Y. Liu, G. J. Collatz, J. S. Wang, L. E. Ott, and M. Chin, Application of NASA-Unified WRF model to carbon dioxide simulation- model development and evaluation. Environmental Modeling and Software, 132, 104785,, 2020.

Tan, J., J. S. Fu, G. R. Carmichael, S. Itahashi, Z. Tao, K. Huang, X. Dong, K. Yamaji, T. Nagashima, X. Wang, Y. Liu, H.-J. Lee, C.-Y. Lin, B. Ge, M. Kajino, J. Zhu, M. Zhang, H. Liao, and Z. Wang, Why do models perform differently on particulate matter over East Asia? A multi-model intercomparison study for MICS-Asia III. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 20: 7393-7410,, 2020.

Tao, Z., M. Chin, M. Gao, T. Kucsera, D. Kim, H. Bian, J. Kurokawa, Y. Wang, Z. Liu, G. R. Carmichael, Z. Wang, and H. Akimoto, Evaluation of NU-WRF performance on air quality simulation under various model resolutions – an investigation within framework of MICS-Asia Phase III. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 20: 2319-2339,, 2020.

Gao, M., Z. Han, Z. Tao, J. Li, J.-E. Kang, K. Huang, X. Dong, B. Zhuang, S. Li, B. Ge, Q. Wu, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Kim, J. S. Fu, T. Wang, M. Chin, M. Li, J.-H. Woo, Q. Zhang, Y. Cheng, Z. Wang, and G. R. Carmichael, Air quality and climate change, Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia III) – Part 2: aerosol radiative effects and aerosol feedbacks. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 20: 1147-1161,, 2020.

Kong, L., X. Tang, J. Zhu, Z. Wang, J. S. Fu, X. Wang, S. Itahashi, K. Yamaji, T. Nagashima, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Lin, L. Chen, M. Zhang, Z. Tao, J. Li, M. Kajino, H. Liao, Z. Wang, K. Sudo, Y. Wang, Y. Pan, G. Tang, M. Li, Q. Wu, B. Ge, and G. R. Carmichael, Evaluation and uncertainty investigation of the NO2, CO and NH3 modeling over China under the framework of MICS-Asia III. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 20: 181-202,, 2020.


Fridlind, A. M., van Lier-Walqui, M., Collis, S., Giangrande, S. E., Jackson, R. C., Li, X., Matsui, T., Orville, R., Picel, M. H., Rosenfeld, D., Ryzhkov, A., Weitz, R., and Zhang, P.: Use of polarimetric radar measurements to constrain simulated convective cell evolution: a pilot study with Lagrangian tracking, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 2979-3000,

Li, J., T. Nagashima, L. Kong, B. Ge, K. Yamaji, J.S. Fu, X. Wang, Q. Fan, S. Itahashi, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Kim, C.-Y. Lin, M. Zhang, Z. Tao, M. Kajino, H. Liao, M. Li, J.-H. Woo, J. Kurokawa, Z. Wang, Q. Wu, H. Akimoto, G.R. Carmichael, and Z. Wang, Model evaluation and inter-comparison of surface-level ozone and relevant species in East Asia in the context of MICS-Asia Phase III – Part 1: Overview, Atmos. Chem. Phys., 19, 12993-13015,

Oue, M., Kollias, P., Shapiro, A., Tatarevic, A., and Matsui, T. , Investigation of observational error sources in multi-Doppler-radar three-dimensional variational vertical air motion retrievals, Atmos. Meas. Tech., 12, 1999-2018,

Santanello Jr., J.A., P. Lawston, S. Kumar, and E. Dennis, Understanding the Impacts of Soil Moisture Initial Conditions on NWP in the Context of Land–Atmosphere Coupling.  J. Hydrometeor., 20, 793–819, 

Tao, W.-K., J. Chern, T. Iguchi, S. Lang, M.-J. Lee, X. Li, A. Loftus, T. Matsui, K. Mohr, S. Nicholls, C. Peters-Lidar, D. Posselt, and G. Skofronick-Jackson, 2019a: Microphysics in Goddard Multi-scale Modeling Systems. “Current trend in the Representation of Physical Processes in Weather and Climate Models” by Springer (February 2019).

Tao, W.-K., T. Iguchi, and S. E. Lang, 2019b: Expanding the Goddard CSH Algorithm for GPM: New Extra-tropical Retrievals.  J. Applied Meteor. Climatol., 58, 921-946, doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-18-0215.1


Gao, M., Z. Han, Z. Liu, M. Li, J. Xin, Z. Tao, J. Li, J.-E. Kong, K. Huang, X. Dong, B. Zhuang, S. Li, B. Ge, Q. Wu, Y. Cheng, Y. Wang, H.-J. Lee, C.-H. Kim, J. S. Fu, T. Wang, M. Chin, J.-H. Woo, Q. Zhang, Z. Wang, and G. R. Carmichael, Air quality and climate change, Topic 3 of the Model Inter-Comparison Study for Asia Phase III (MICS-Asia III) – Part 1: Overview and model evaluation. Atmospheric Chemistry & Physics, 18: 4859-4884,, 2018.

Iguchi, T., T. Matsui, Z. Tao, D. Kim, C. M. Ichoku, L. Ellison, and J. Wang: NU-WRF aerosol transport simulation over West Africa: Effects of biomass burning on smoke aerosol distribution,  J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 57, 1551–1573. doi: 10.1175/JAMC-D-17-0278.1.

Kim, J., B. Guan, D. E. Waliser, R. D. Ferraro, J. Case, T. Iguchi, E. Kemp, W. Putman, W. Wang, D. Wu, and B. TianWinter precipitation characteristics in western US related to atmospheric river landfalls: observations and model evaluations, Climate Dynamics, 50, 231-248. DOI: 10.1007/s00382-017-3601-5.

Matsui, T., S. Q. Zhang, W.-K. Tao, S. Lang, C. Ichoku, and C. Peters-Lidard, Impact of Radiation Frequency, Precipitation Radiative Forcing, and Radiation Column Aggregation on Convection-Permitting West African Monsoon Simulations, Climate Dynamics, 1-21,

Tao, Z., S.A. Braun, J.J. Shi, M. Chin, D. Kim, T. Matsui, and C.D. Peters-Lidard, Microphysics and radiation effect of dust on Saharan air layer: An HS3 case study, Mon. Wea. Rev., 146, 1813-1835, doi:10.1175/MWR-D-17-0279.1, 2018.


Fridlind, A. M., X. Li, D. Wu, M. van Lier-Walqui. A. S. Ackerman, W.-K. Tao, et al., 2017: Use of observation-based aerosol profiles km simulations of a mid-latitude squall line during MC3E: Similarity of microphysics regime to tropical conditions.  Atmos. Chem. Phys. 17, 5947-5972, doi:10.5194/acp-17-5947-2017.

Iguchi, T., W.-K. Tao, D. Wu, C. Peters-Lidard, J. Santanello, E. Kemp, Y. Tian, J. Case, W. Wang, R. Ferraro, D. Waliser, J. Kim, H. Lee, B. Guan, B. Tian, P. Loikith: Sensitivity of CONUS summer rainfall to the selection of cumulus parameterization schemes in NU-WRF seasonal simulations, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18, 1689–1706, doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0120.1.

Kim, D., M. Chin, E. M. Kemp, Z. Tao, C. D., Peters-Lidard, P. Ginoux, Development of High-Resolution Dynamic Dust Source Function - A Case Study with a Strong Dust Storm in a Regional Model, Atmos. Environ., 159, 11-25.

Lawston, P. M., Santanello Jr., J. A., Franz, T. E., and Rodell, M.: Assessment of irrigation physics in a land surface modeling framework using non-traditional and human-practice datasets, Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci., 21, 2953–2966,, 2017.

Lee, H., D. E. Waliser, R. Ferraro, T. Iguchi, C. D. Peters-Lidard, B. Tian, P. C. Loikith, and D. B. Wright: Evaluating hourly rainfall characteristics over the US Great Plains in dynamically downscaled climate model simulations using NASA-Unified WRF (NU-WRF), Journal of Geophysical Research – Atmospheres, 122. DOI: 10.1002/2017JD026564.

Tian, B., H. Lee, D. Waliser, R. Ferraro, J. Kim, J. Case, T. Iguchi, E. Kemp, D. Wu, W. Putman, and W. Wang: Development of a model performance metric and its application to assess summer precipitation over the US Great Plains in downscaled climate simulations, Journal of Hydrometeorology, 18, 2781–2799.

Zhang, S.Q., Matsui, T., Cheung, S., Zupanski, M. and Peters‐Lidard, C.:  Impact of assimilated precipitation‐sensitive radiances on the NU‐WRF simulation of West African monsoon. Monthly Weather Review,  145,  3881– 3900.‐D‐16‐0389.1.


Blankenship,C.B., J. L. Case, B. T. Zavodsky and W. L. Crosson: Assimilation of SMOS Retrievals in the Land Information System, IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing, vol. 54, no. 11, pp. 6320-6332, Nov. 2016. doi: 10.1109/TGRS.2016.2579604

Lau, W. K., J. J. Shi, and K. M. KimWhat Would Happen to Superstorm Sandy under the Influence of a Substantially Warmer Atlantic Sea Surface Temperature? Geophysical Research Letters. Vol. 43, Issue 2, 802-811, doi:10.1002/2015GL067050.

Lau, W. K.,  K.-M. Kim, J. J. Shi,  T.  Matsui, M. Chin, Q. Tan, C. Peters-Lidard, and W. K. TaoImpacts of aerosol-monsoon interaction on rainfall and circulation over Northern India and the Himalayan Foothills. Climate Dynamics, doi:10.1007/s00382-016-3430-y.

Santanello, J.A., S.V. Kumar, C.D. Peters-Lidard, and P.M. LawstonImpact of Soil Moisture Assimilation on Land Surface Model Spinup and Coupled Land–Atmosphere Prediction. J. Hydrometeor., 17, 517–540, 

Tao, W.-K., D. Wu, S. Lang, J. Chern, A. Fridlind, C. Peters-Lidard, and T. MatsuiHigh-resolution model simulations of MC3E, deep convective-precipitation systems: Comparisons between Goddard microphysics schemes and observations, J. Geophys. Res., 121, 1278-1306.  doi:10.1002/2015JD023986.

Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.: Impact of transpacific aerosol on air quality over the United States: A perspective from aerosol–cloud–radiation interactions, Atmospheric Environment, 125, P48-60, doi:10.1016/j.atmosenv.2015.10.083

Wu, D., C. Peters-Lidard, W.-K. Tao, and W. Petersen: Evaluation of NU-WRF real-time rainfall forecast for IFloodS, J. Hydrometeor., Doi:10.1175/JHM-D-15-0134.1.

Zhou, Y., Di Wu, K.-M. Lau and W.-K. Tao: Scale Dependence of Land Atmospheric Interactions in Wet and Dry Regions as Simulated with NU-WRF over Southwest and Southeast, US. J. Hydrometeor., doi: 10.1175/JHM-D-16-0024.1.


Lawston, P.M., J.A. Santanello, B.F. Zaitchik, and M. RodellImpact of Irrigation Methods on Land Surface Model Spinup and Initialization of WRF Forecasts.  J. Hydrometeor., 16, 1135–1154, 

Peters-Lidard, C.D., E. M. Kemp, T. Matsui, J. A. Santanello, Jr., S. V., Kumar, J. P. Jacob, T. Clune, W.-K. Tao, M. Chin, A. Hou, J. L. Case,, D. Kim, K.-M. Kim, W. Lau, Y. Liu, J.-J. Shi, D. Starr, Q. Tan,, Z. Tao, B. F. Zaitchik, B. Zavodsky, S. Q. Zhang, M. Zupanski: Integrated modeling of aerosol, cloud, precipitation and land processes at satellite-resolved scales, Environmental Modelling & Software, 67, 149–159. doi:

Tao, Z.; Yu, H.; Chin, M.: The Role of Aerosol-Cloud-Radiation Interactions in Regional Air Quality—A NU-WRF Study over the United States, Atmosphere, 6, 1045-1068. doi:10.3390/atmos6081045


Case, J. L., F. J. LaFontaine, J. R. Bell, G. J. Jedlovec, S. V. Kumar, and C. D. Peters-Lidard: A real-time MODIS vegetation product for land surface and numerical weather prediction models. IEEE Trans. Geosci. Remote Sens., 52(3), 1772-1786.

Iguchi, T., T. Matsui, W.-K. Tao, A. Khain, V. T. J. Phillips, C. Kidd, T. L’Ecuyer, S. A. Braun, A. Hou, and M. R. Schwaller: Numerical simulations using WRF-SBM for mixed-phase precipitation and consequent bright band structure observed in the LPVEx field campaign, J. Appl. Meteor. Climatol., 53, 2710-2731, doi:10.1175/JAMC-D-13-0334.1

Matsui, T., J. Santanello, J. J. Shi, W.-K. Tao, D. Wu, C. Peters-Lidard, E. Kemp, M. Chin, D. Starr, M. Sekiguchi, and F. Aires: Introducing Multi-Sensor Satellite Radiance-based Evaluation for Regional Earth System Modeling,  Journal of Geophysical Research, doi:

Kumar, Anil, Robert A. Houze, Kristen L. Rasmussen, Christa Peters-Lidard: Simulation of a Flash Flooding Storm at the Steep Edge of the Himalayas*. J. Hydrometeor, 15, 212–228. doi:

Shi, J. J., T. Matsui, W.-K., Tao, Q. Tan, C. Peters-Lidard, M. Chin, K. Pickering, N. Guy, S. Lang and E. M. Kemp: Implementation of an aerosol–cloud-microphysics–radiation coupling into the NASA unified WRF: Simulation results for the 6–7 August 2006 AMMA special observing period. Quarterly Journal of the Royal Meteorological Society. doi:


Santanello, Joseph A., Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Aaron Kennedy, Sujay V. Kumar: Diagnosing the Nature of Land–Atmosphere Coupling: A Case Study of Dry/Wet Extremes in the U.S. Southern Great Plains. J. Hydrometeor, 14, 3–24. doi:

Santanello, Joseph A., Sujay V. Kumar, Christa D. Peters-Lidard, Ken Harrison, Shujia Zhou: Impact of Land Model Calibration on Coupled Land–Atmosphere Prediction. J. Hydrometeor, 14, 1373–1400. doi:

Shi, J. J., T. Matsui, W.-K. Tao, C. Peters-Lidard, M. Chin, Q. Tan, K. Pickering, and E. Kemp: Implementation of an Aerosol-Cloud Microphysics-Radiation Coupling into the NASA Unified WRF: Simulation Results for the 6-7 August 2006 AMMA Special Observing Period. Quart. J. Roy. Meteor. Soc., 140, 2158-2175. doi: 10.1002/qj.2286.

Tao, W.-K., D. Wu, T. Matsui, C. Peters-Lidard, S. Lang, A. Hou, M. Rienecker, W. Petersen, and M. Jensen: Precipitation intensity and variation during MC3E: A numerical modeling study, Journal of Geophysical Research, Atmosphere, 118(13), 7199-7218, doi:

Tao, W.-K., D. Wu, T. Matsui, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, A. Hou, M. Rienecker, W. Petersen and M. Jensen: The Diurnal Variation of Precipitation: A numerical modeling study, J. Geophys. Res.,118, 7199–7218, doi:10.1002/jgrd.50410. 

Tao, Z., J. A. Santanello, M. Chin, S. Zhou, Q. Tan, E. M. Kemp, and C. D. Peters-Lidard: Effect of land cover on atmospheric processes and air quality over the continental United States – a NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF) model study. Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics, 13, 6207-6226. doi:

Zaitchik, B. F., J. A. Santanello, S. V. Kumar, and C. D. Peters-Lidard: Representation of soil moisture feedbacks during drought in NASA Unified WRF (NU-WRF). Journal of Hydrometeorology, 14, 360-367, doi:


Tao, W.-K., J. J. Shi, P.-L. Lin, M.-Y. Chang, M.-J. Yang, C. Peter-Liddard, C.-H. Sui: High Resolution Numerical Simulation of Typhoon Morakot: Part I:  Impact of Microphysics and PBL. Special Issue on Typhoon Morakot, Terrestrial, Atmospheric and Oceanic Sciences, Vol. 22, No. 6,  673-696. doi.10.3319/TAO2011.08.26.01™.


Shi, J. J., W.-K. Tao, T. Matsui, A. Hou, S. Lang, C. Peters-Lidard, G. Jackson, R. Cifelli, S. Rutledge, and W. Petersen: Microphysical Properties of the January 20-22 2007 Snow Events over Canada: Comparison with in-situ and Satellite Observations. J. Applied Meteor. Climatol., 49, 2246-2266.


Tao, W.K., D. Anderson, J. Chern, J. Entin, A. Hou, P. Houser, R. Kakar, S. Lang, W. Lau, C. Peters-Lidard, X. Li, T. Matsui, M. Rienecker, M. R. Schoeberl, B.W. Shen, J. J. Shi, and X. Zheg: The Goddard multi-scale modeling system with unified physicsAnnales Geophysicae27, 3055-3064.


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